Corrosion is a key problem affecting all type of metals in their wide range of applications. Different solutions have been designed and developed for protecting diverse metals, from stainless steels to carbon steels and light alloys of aluminium and magnesium. Inorganic and hybrid sol-gel coatings act as barriers against corrosion; when corrosion inhibitors are included, a high performance is obtained increasing the possibilities of using low price and low-density alloys. In particular, Mg alloys appear as good alternatives for biodegradable implants. However, the high corrosion rate, H2 release and the increment of local pH of Mg limit their usage. To control these aspects, a suitable process is the surface modification by deposition of silica sol-gel coatings. Currently, multi-integrated corrosion systems are being studied that combine surface anodization of light alloys (Al and Mg), infiltration of inhibitors solutions and protecting hybrid top coats or melting gel coatings.

  • U. Tiringer; A. Durán; Y. Castro; I. Milosev. Self-Healing Effect of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings Based on GPTMS, TEOS, SiO2 Nanoparticles and Ce(NO3)3 Applied on Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6. J. Electrochem. Society. 165 – 5, (2018) C213 – C225. 2018.

  • Y. Castro; A. Durán, Control of degradation rate of Mg alloys using silica sol–gel coatings for biodegradable implant materials. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 2018.

  • U Tiringer; I. Milošev; A. Durán, Y. Castro, Hybrid sol–gel coatings based on GPTMS/TEOS containing colloidal SiO2 and cerium nitrate for increasing corrosion protection of aluminium alloy 7075-T6. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 85, (2018) 546 – 557.

  • Alicia Durán; Yolanda Castro; Ana Conde; Juan Jose Damborenea. Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. Sol–Gel Protective Coatings for Metals. Springer US, 2018. ISBN 978-3-319-32100-4

  • M. Aparicio, J. Mosa. Electrochemical characterization of sol–gel coatings for corrosion protection of metal substrates. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 88 (2018) 77-89.

  • L. C. Klein, S. Kallontzi, L. Fabris, A. Jitianu, C. Ryan, M. Aparicio, L. Lei, J. P. Singer. Applications of melting gels. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2018).

  • S. A. Omar; Y. Castro; J. Balla; Wido H. Schreiner; A. Durán; S. M. Cere. Magnesium Alloys Implants Coated with 58S Sol-Gel Bioactive Glass to Retard First Stage. Corrosion. 73 (2017) 1448 – 1460.

  • Andrei Jitianu, Sylvian Cadars, Fan Zhang, Gabriela Rodriguez, Quentin Picard, Mario Aparicio, Jadra Mosa, Lisa C. Klein. 29Si NMR and SAXS investigation of the hybrid organic–inorganic glasses obtained by consolidation of the melting gels. Dalton Transactions 46 (2017) 3729-3741.

  • M. Aparicio, A. Jitianu, G. Rodriguez, K. Al-Marzoki, M. Jitianu, J. Mosa, L. C. Klein. Thickness-properties synergy in organic–inorganic consolidated melting-gel coatings for protection of 304 stainless steel in NaCl solutions. Surface & Coatings Technology 315 (2017) 426-435.

  • Y. Reyes; A. Durán; Y. Castro, Glass-like cerium sol-gel coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy for controlling the biodegradation of temporary implants. Surface & Coatings Technology 307 (2016) 574 – 582.

  • L. M. Rueda, C. A. Hernández, F. Viejo, A. E. Coy, J. Mosa, M. Aparicio. Diseño de recubrimientos multicapa barrera-biomimético base TEOS-GPTMS sobre la aleación de magnesio Elektron 21 de potencial aplicación en la fabricación de implantes ortopédicos. Revista de Metalurgia 52 (2016), Article number e075.

  • M. Aparicio, A. Jitianu, G. Rodriguez, A. Degnah, K. Al-Marzoki, J. Mosa, L. C. Klein. Corrosion Protection of AISI 304 Stainless Steel with Melting Gel Coatings. Electrochimica Acta 202 (2016) 325-332.

  • J. Mosa, N. C. Rosero-Navarro, M. Aparicio. Active corrosion inhibition of mild steel by environmentally friendly Ce-doped organic-inorganic sol–gel coatings. RSC Advances 6 (2016) 39577-39586.

  • Y. Reyes; A. Durán; Y. Castro, Recubrimientos vítreos de cerio para la protección activa de aleaciones de aluminio. Bol Soc Esp Ceram Vid., 54 (2015) 28 – 37. 2015

  • M. Aparicio, N. C. Rosero-Navarro, Y. Castro, A. Durán, S. A. Pellice. Chapter 11: “Hybrid Ce-containing silica-methacrylate sol–gel coatings for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys”. In European Federation of Corrosion Publications Number 58: Self-healing properties of new surface treatments, 2011, pg. 202-219, ed. Lorenzo Fedrizzi, Wolfram Fürbeth and Fátima Montemor, Maney Publishing. ISBN: 978 1 906540 36 4

  • Inventores: C.Rosero-Navarro, Y.Castro, M. Aparicio, A. Durán
    Glass-like environmentally friendly sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of metals
    Año petición: 2009.
    Clase: patente española P200930982.
    Patente PCT: PCTES2010070726

  • L. Paussa, F. Andreatta, N.C. Rosero Navarro, A. Durán, L. Fedrizzi.
    Study of the effect of cerium nitrate on AA2024-T3 by means of electrochemical micro-cell technique.
    Electrochimica Acta, 70 (2012) 25-33

  • L. Paussa, N.C. Rosero Navarro, D. Bravin, F. Andreatta, A. Lanzutti, Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, A. Durán, L.Fedrizzi.
    ZrO2 sol-gel pre-treatments doped with cerium nitrate for the corrosion protection of AA6060.
    Prog.Org Coats 74 (2012) 2, 311-319.

  • F. Andreatta, L. Paussa, A. Lanzutti, N.C. Rosero-Navarro, M. Aparicio, Y. Castro, A. Duran, D. Ondratschek, L. Fedrizzi.
    Development and industrial scale-up of ZrO2 coatings and hybrid organic–inorganic coatings used as pre-treatments before painting aluminium alloys. Progress in Organic Coatings 72 (2011) 3– 14

  • N.C. Rosero-Navarro, M. Curioni, Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, G.E.Thompson, A. Durán
    Glass-like Cerium containing sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of aluminium and magnesium alloys.
    Surface & Coatings Technology 206 (2011) 257–264

  • L.Paussa; N.C.Rosero Navarro; F.Andreatta; M.Aparicio; Y.Castro; A.Durán ; L.Fedrizzi.
    Inhibition effect of cerium nitrate solutions on the electrochemical behaviour of bare AA2024-T3
    Surface Interface Analysis 42, (2010) 299-305.

  • N.C. Rosero Navarro, Y. Castro, A. Durán, M. Aparicio, L. Paussa, F. Andreatta, L. Fedrizzi.
    Optimisation of hybrid sol-gel coatings by combination of layers with complementary properties for corrosion protection of AA2024.
    Prog. Org.Coatings 69 (2010) 167-174

  • N.C. Rosero-Navarro, P.Figiel, R. Jedrzejewski, Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, S. Pellice, A. Durán.
    Influence of cerium concentration on the structure and properties of silica-methacrylate sol-gel coatings.
    J. Sol-gel Sci.Technol 54 (2010)3, 301-311.

  • C. Trenado, D. J. Strauss, M. Wittmar, M. Veith, N. C. Rosero-Navarro, M. Aparicio, A. Durán, Y. Castro.
    Modelling the self-healing property of smart corrosion protection coatings.
    Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 19 025009
    doi: 10.1088/0965-0393/19/2/025009

  • N.C. Rosero-Navarro, M.Curioni, R.Bingham, A. Durán, M. Aparicio, R. Cottis, G. Thompson.
    Electrochemical techniques for practical evaluation of corrosion inhibitor effectiveness. Performance of cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitor for AA2024T3 alloy.
    Corrosion Science, 52 (2010)10, 3356-3366

  • L. Paussa, N.C. Rosero Navarro, F. Andreatta, Y. Castro, A. Durán, M. Aparicio, L. Fedrizzi
    Inhibition effect of cerium in hybrid sol-gel films on aluminium alloy AA2024
    Surface Interface Analysis 42, (2010) 299-305

  • N.C. Rosero-Navarro, S.A. Pellice, A. Durán, S. Ceré. M. Aparicio.
    Corrosion protection of aluminium alloy AA2024 with cerium doped methacrylate-silica coatings
    J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 52 (2009) 1, 31-40.

  • L. Predoana, A. Barau, M.Zaharescu, Y.Castro, C. Rosero, A. Durán, M. Aparicio
    SiO2 based hybrid inorganic films doped with TiO2CeO2 particles for corrosion protection of AA2024 and Mg AZ31 alloys.

  • N.C. Rosero, S.A. Pellice, Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, A. Durán.
    Improved corrosion resistance of AA2024 alloys through hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coatings produced from sols with controlled polymerization.
    Surf. Coat.Technol 203 (2009) 1897–1903

  • C. Rosero-Navarro, S. A. Pellice, A. Durán, M. Aparicio.
    Effects of Ce-containing sol–gel coatings reinforced with SiO2 nanoparticles on the protection of AA2024N.
    Corr. Sci. 50 (2008) 1283–1291

  • D. López, N. C. Rosero-Navarro, J. Ballarre, A.Durán, M. Aparicio, S. Ceré
    Multilayer silica-methacrylate hybrid coatings prepared by sol-gel on stainless steel 316L: Electrochemical evaluation.
    Surface & Coatings Technology, 202 (2008) 2194–2201.

  • Y.Castro, A.Durán, J.J.Damborenea, A.Conde,
    Electrochemical behaviour of silica basic hybrid coatings deposited on stainless steel by dipping and EPD.
    Electrochimica Acta 53 (2008) 6008–6017

  • J. Ballarre, D. A. López, W. H. Schreiner, A. Durán, S. M. Ceré,
    Protective hybrid sol-gel coatings containing bioactive particles on surgical grade stainless steel: Surface characterization.
    Applied Surface Science, 253 (2007) 7260-7264

  • A. Pepe, M. Aparicio, A. Durán and S. Ceré,
    Cerium hybrid silica coatings on stainless steel AISI 304 substrates.
    Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 39 (2) (2006) 131-138.

  • A.Durán, Y.Castro, M. Aparicio, A. Conde, J. J. Damborenea.
    Protection and surface modification of metals by the sol-gel method.
    Internat. Mat. Review 52 (3) (2007) 175-192

  • A. Conde, J. de Damborenea, A. Durán, M. Menning.
    Protective properties of a sol-gel coating on zinc coated steel.
    J.Sol-gel Sci.Techn. 39 (2006) 79-85.

  • Y. Castro, B. Ferrari, R. Moreno, A. Durán.
    Silica-zirconia coatings produced by dipping and epd from colloidal sol-gel suspensions .
    J.Sol-gel Sci. Technol. 35(2006) 51-55.

  • Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, R. Moreno, A. Durán.
    Silica-zirconia sol-gel coatings obtained by different synthesis routes.
    J.Sol-gel Sci. Technol. 35(2006) 41-50.

  • Y.Castro, B.Ferrari, R.Moreno, A.Durán.
    Corrosion behaviour of silica hybrid coatings produced from basic catalysed particulate sols by dipping and EPD.
    Surf.Coat.Technol, 191 (2005)228-235

  • Y. Castro, B. Ferrari, A. Durán and R. Moreno,
    Effect of rheology and processing parameters on the EPD coatings of basic sol-gel particulate sol
    J.Mat Sci. 39(2004)845-849.

  • Y. Castro, B. Ferrari, R. Moreno, A. Durán.
    Coatings produced by EPD from nanoparticulate silica sol-gel suspensions .
    Surf.Coat.Technol. 182 (2-3) (2004)199-203.

  • A. Durán, A.Conde, A.Gómez Coedo, T.Dorado, C.García, S.Ceré.
    Sol-gel coatings for protective and bioactive functionalisation of metals used in orthopaedic devices
    J. Mater. Chem. 14(2004)282 – 2290

  • J. Gallardo, A. Durán, J.J. de Damborenea
    Electrochemical and in vitro behaviour of sol-gel coated 316L stainless steel.
    Corrosion Sci. 46 (2004) 795-806.

  • S. Pellice, P. Galliano, Y. Castro, A. Durán.
    Hybrid Sol-gel Coatings Produced from TEOS and ɣ-MPS.
    J.Sol-gel Sci.Technol. 28 (2003) 81-86

  • A.Conde, A.Durán, J.J. de Damborenea,
    Polymeric sol-gel coatings as protective layers of aluminium alloys.
    Org. Prot. Coatings, 1273 (2003) 1-9.

  • Y.Castro, R.Moreno, B.Ferrari, A.Durán.
    Silica sol-gel coatings on metals produced by EPD.
    J.Sol-Gel Sci.Tech. 26, (2003) 735-739

  • J. Gallardo, I. Garcia, L. Celis, M.A. Arenas, A. Conde, A. Durán.
    Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Corrosion and Wear Behaviour of Protective SiO2-Based Sol-Gel Coatings.
    J.Sol-gel Sci.Techn. 27 (2003) 175-183.

  • Y.Castro, R.Moreno, B.Ferrari, A.Durán.
    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) coatings of sol-gel solutions and suspensions.
    J.Sol-Gel Sci.Tech, 23(2002) (2) 187-189

  • Y.Castro, A.Durán, R.Moreno, B.Ferrari.
    Thick sol-gel coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD).
    Adv.Mater. 14 (2002) April 4, 505-508.

  • J.Gallardo, A.Durán, D. di Martino, R.Almeida.
    Structure of inorganic and hybrid SiO2 sol-gel coatings studied by variable incidence FTIR spectroscopy
    J. Non-Cryst.Solids, 298 (2002) 219-225

  • J. Gallardo, P.Galliano, A.Durán.
    Biaoactive and protective sol-gel coatings on metals for orthopedic prothesis (invited paper),
    J. Sol-gel Sci. Techn. 21(2001)1-2.

  • A. C. Lópes, J. Gallardo, A. Durán.
    Síntesis y estructura de recubrimientos híbridos de ZrO2-SiO2 obtenidos por sol-gel.
    Bol.Soc.Esp.Ceram.V. 40 (2001) 429-434

  • A. Morales, A. Durán.
    Sol-gel protection of silver and aluminium mirrors.
    J. Sol-gel Sci. Techn., 8 (1997) 451-457.

  • J. de Damborenea, N. Pellegri, O. de Sanctis, A. Durán.
    Electrochemical behaviour of SiO2 sol-gel coatings on stainless steel.
    J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech., 4 (1995) 247-252.

  • O. de Sanctis, N. Pellegri, A. Marajofsky, A. Durán.
    Protective glass coatings on metallic substrates.
    J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 121 (1990) 338-343